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Designing Home and SME Networks 6: Internet IP Addressing Strategies

Consequently, how do I get an Internet protocol address?

Every device that needs to contact the Net needs an unique Net protocol address. Without this, the Internet doesn’t know where to send responses to your requests. 192.168.1.1 login admin

You will find two different, and functionally incompatible, IP addressing strategies:

IPv4, which is structured on an individual 32-bit amount that supports rather fewer than 2^32 (4 billion) unique addresses. This version is utilized almost universally at the moment. Given that every PC, server, router etc on the Net needs an unique address, we are rapidly operating out of addresses.

IPv6, which is intended to exchange IPv4, uses a 128-bit number that can support about 3. 8 times 10^38 (340 undecillion) tackles. That is a whole lot of addresses, and, although most operating systems support it, currently, it is employed on less than 1% of installed equipment.
Consequently, given that, for the moment, we are caught up with IPv4, how do we deal with the shortage of addresses?

Presently there are two main strategies within IPv4 to reduce the number of address on the Internet, and they work together:

Personal and Public address varies.
IP addresses are made up of 32 parts, arranged as four ‘octets’. Each octet may take any value from 0 to 255, and so they are typically written as four numbers separated by durations, e. g. 202. doze. 27. 33

Blocks of IP addresses are allotted to the many organizations that manage the provision of addresses to businesses and the general public.

Selected blocks are designated as ‘private’ while all others are ‘public’. Private addresses are not allowed to be attached to the internet directly, and any data bearing a private address as source or vacation spot will be blocked by the Internet’s routers: any network that needs to exchange data with the Internet must have at least one public Net protocol address.

Because general public addresses are in brief supply, ISPs use many of strategies to decrease their use:

Normally, ISPs dynamically allocate an one public Internet protocol address to each end-user, so that every time they log in, they are really given a different address from the ‘pool’ of details. Such dynamic addresses are issued by the ISP’s DHCP server and will probably ‘expire’ after a while. Hence, if you leave your Internet router on on a regular basis (as most people do nowadays) you could be disconnected when the DHCP server’s address ‘lease’ runs out, and you will need to disconnect your Net connection and sign in again. Some ISPs take care of this better than others. If you wish to make sure it doesn’t happen, then ask your ISP for a dedicated (static) IP address for your Internet interconnection.
Most ISPs will designate you just one IP address (or sometimes 2) at no extra charge. If you wish more that this (say you have 3 Personal computers at your house. and want them to have unique public IP tackles, you will have to pay extra for the other addresses.

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